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可怜的梭罗――读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(五十)  

2010-05-26 12:40:04|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Economy is a subject which admits of being treated with levity, but it cannot so be disposed of. A comfortable house for a rude and hardy race, that lived mostly out of doors, was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands. Gookin, who was superintendent of the Indians subject to the Massachusetts Colony, writing in 1674, says, "The best of their houses are covered very neatly, tight and warm, with barks of trees, slipped from their bodies at those seasons when the sap is up, and made into great flakes, with pressure of weighty timber, when they are green. . . . The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former. . . . Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. . . . I have often lodged in their wigwams, and found them as warm as the best English houses." He adds that they were commonly carpeted and lined within with well-wrought embroidered mats, and were furnished with various utensils. The Indians had advanced so far as to regulate the effect of the wind by a mat suspended over the hole in the roof and moved by a string. Such a lodge was in the first instance constructed in a day or two at most, and taken down and put up in a few hours; and every family owned one, or its apartment in one.

(徐迟译)经济学这一门科学曾经受到各种各样的轻视,但它是不可以等闲视之的。那些粗壮结实,在露天过大部分生活的人,曾经在这里盖过一所舒服的房屋,取用的几乎全部是大自然的现成材料。马萨诸塞州垦区的印第安人的总管戈金,曾在一六七四年这样写道:“他们的最好的尖屋用树皮盖顶,干净清爽,紧密而温暖,这些树皮都是在干燥的季节中,从树身上掉下来的,趁树皮还苍翠的时候,用相当重的木材压成巨片。??较蹩脚的尖屋也用灯心草编成的席子盖顶,也很紧密而温暖,只是没有前者那么精美??我所看到的,有的是六十英尺,或一百英尺长,三十英尺宽。??我常常住在他们的尖屋中,发现它跟最好的英国式屋子一样温暖。”他接着还说,室内通常是把嵌花的席子铺在地上和挂在墙壁上的,各种器皿一应俱全。而且印第安人已经进步到能够在屋顶上开洞,放上一张席子,用绳子来开关,控制了通风设施首先要注意的是,这样的尖屋最多一两天就可以盖起来,只要几个小时就可以拆掉,并且重新搭好,每一家人家都有一座这样的房子,或者占有这样的尖屋中的一个小间。

1Economy这个词源于希腊语,意思是“管理家庭或处理家务(management of a household or of household affairs)”。梭罗把它用作第一章的标题,用意也不止一层。耗费少而收益多是经济,人们不在吃穿住等基础建设上花费太多精力,而省下来用于精神发展,也是经济。梭罗说“生活之经济是哲学的同义词”。(From the Greek oikonomia, meaning management of a household or of household affairs. In titling the chapter ‘‘Economy,’’ Thoreau went beyond the word’s common definitions—as a community’s method of wealth creation or as frugality—and referred to its root meaning, as he often did. Emerson wrote in ‘‘Man the Reformer’’: ‘‘Economy is a high, humane office, a sacrament, when its aim is grand; when it is the prudence of simple tastes, when it is practiced for freedom, or love, or devotion.’’ Thoreau wrote later in this chapter that the economy of living is ‘‘synonymous with philosophy.’’

2、“Economy is a subject……”经济是一个……的话题(主题)。译为“学科”,就像是学校里学的课程;译为“科学”就不妥了;译为“学问”,基本是抛开了原文,尽管“简朴生活是门学问(戴译)”这句话没错也说得很好,但它不是“Economy is a subject……”译文。

3、“which admits of being treated with levity”这一句的时态很清楚是一般现在时,是说“容许人们不重视,但是……”,徐译“曾经受到各种各样的轻视”成了过去时,而戴译“它一直遭到人们的轻视”成了现在完成(进行)时。不理解译者为什么要这样改动。

4A comfortable house for a rude and hardy race, that lived mostly out of doors, was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands. 如果把中间插入的定语从句去掉,这个句子的基本结构就很清楚了:“A comfortable house ……was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands.”就是说“过去建造舒适房子的材料几乎全是大自然所提供的”,“用大自然提供的手头上的材料就可以建造出舒适的房子”。

“舒适的房子”是这一句要谈的话题。

然而,徐译把次要成分“a rude and hardy race, that lived mostly out of doors”译成了主语“那些粗壮结实,在露天过大部分生活的人,曾经在这里”就改变了话题,况且“a …race”译成“那些……人”也不妥。

到了戴译“一帮卤莽壮实的家伙”就更加离谱。“那些……人”至少还是中性的,而“一帮卤莽……的家伙”语气里充满着贬低辱骂,只需要听听这几个词,就不会听不出来。

梭罗他想表达的是这意思吗?人类原来没开化时,野蛮能吃苦,大部分时间都呆在户外,盖的房子也都是树皮等大自然所给予的材料,房子也很舒适。这和“一帮卤莽壮实的家伙”扯不上关系。

5they were commonly carpeted and lined within这里的“they”是指房子而不是指人。徐译“室内”是对的,戴译“他们”是错误的。

6regulate the effect of the wind徐译“控制了通风设施”不妥。

7、“首先要注意的是”看来是译“in the first instance”的,但英语里面并没有“注意”呀。这个短语用在“was ……constructed”中间,是与后面的“taken down and put up”相呼应的。也就是说“这种房子一开始建时至多花一两天,而后拆卸再搭建就只需要几个小时了。”

(戴欢译)简朴生活是门学问它一直遭到人们的轻视,但它却不能任人漠然无视。一帮卤莽壮实的家伙,他们的大部分时间都在户外度过,曾经在这里建起一座座舒适的住宅,使用的建材全都是大自然恩赐的材料。隶属于马萨诸塞州的印第安人的总督戈金曾在1674年写道:“他们最好的圆锥顶棚屋都搭盖得非常整洁、严实温暖,用树皮盖顶,树皮是在树木干燥的季节从树身上脱落掉的,趁着树皮还较青翠时,用很重的圆木将它们压成大木片……较差一点的圆锥顶棚屋则是用芦苇编成的草席盖顶的,也同样严实和温暖,只是没有前者美观耐用……我见过的一些棚屋有60或100英尺长、30英尺宽……我常常住在他们的圆锥顶棚屋里,觉得它们与好的英式屋子一样温暖。”

    他随后又说道,他们通常是把镶饰精美花纹的席子当成地毯,或是挂在墙上当作壁毯,还摆饰着式样各异的器皿。印第安人已经进步到能够自如地控制通风的效果,他们在屋顶开个天窗,用席子盖在天窗上,用一根绳子来进行开关。最值得注意的是,这样的圆锥顶棚屋顶最多一到两天就可以搭盖起来,只需几个小时便可拆除,然后又重新装好。每一户人家都拥有一座这样的屋子,或者一座棚屋中的一个单间。

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