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可怜的梭罗――读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(七十三)  

2010-06-29 09:10:43|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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     True, there are architects so called in this country, and I have heard of one at least possessed with the idea of making architectural ornaments have a core of truth, a necessity, and hence a beauty, as if it were a revelation to him. All very well perhaps from his point of view, but only a little better than the common dilettantism. A sentimental reformer in architecture, he began at the cornice, not at the foundation. It was only how to put a core of truth within the ornaments, that every sugarplum, in fact, might have an almond or caraway seed in it -- though I hold that almonds are most wholesome without the sugar -- and not how the inhabitant, the indweller, might build truly within and without, and let the ornaments take care of themselves. What reasonable man ever supposed that ornaments were something outward and in the skin merely -- that the tortoise got his spotted shell, or the shell-fish its mother-o'-pearl tints, by such a contract as the inhabitants of Broadway their Trinity Church? But a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell: nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard. The enemy will find it out. He may turn pale when the trial comes. This man seemed to me to lean over the cornice, and timidly whisper his half truth to the rude occupants who really knew it better than he. What of architectural beauty I now see, I know has gradually grown from within outward, out of the necessities and character of the indweller, who is the only builder -- out of some unconscious truthfulness, and nobleness, without ever a thought for the appearance and whatever additional beauty of this kind is destined to be produced will be preceded by a like unconscious beauty of life.

(徐迟译)真的,在这个国家里面有一种人叫做建筑师,至少我听说过一个建筑师有一种想法要使建筑上的装饰具有一种真理之核心,一种必要性,因此有一种美,好像这是神灵给他的启示。从他的观点来说,是很好的罗,实际他比普通爱好美术的外行人只高明一点儿。一个建筑学上感情用事的改革家,他不从基础,却从飞檐人手。仅在装饰中放一个真理之核心,像糖拌梅子里面嵌进一粒杏仁或者一粒葛缕子,——我总觉得吃杏仁,不用糖更有益于健康,——他不想想居民,即住在房屋里面的人,可以把房屋建筑得里里外外都很好,而不去管什么装饰。哪个讲理性的人会认为装饰只是表面的,仅属于皮肤上的东西,——认为乌龟获得斑纹的甲壳,贝类获得珠母的光泽,就像百老汇的居民获得三一教堂似的要签订什么合同呢?一个人跟他自己的房屋建筑的风格无关,就跟乌龟跟它的甲壳无关一样:当兵的不必那么无聊,把自己的勇气的确切的颜色画在旗帜上。敌人会知道的。到了紧要关头上,他就要脸色发青了。在我看来,这位建筑师仿佛俯身在飞檐上,羞涩地向那粗鲁的住户私语着他的似是而非的真理,实际上住户比他还知道得更多。我现在所看到的建筑学的美,我了解它是从内部向外面渐渐地生长出来的,是从那住在里面的人的需要和他的性格中生长出来的,住在里面的人是唯一的建筑师,——美来自他的不知不觉的真实感和崇高心灵,至于外表他一点儿没有想到;这样的美如果必然产生的话,那他先已不知不觉地有了生命之美。

1True, there are architects so called in this country。假如我们把“so called”看作插入语,把它去掉后再来看句子:“there are architects in this country”。应该是“这个国家里有建筑师”。“architects”是复数形式表示类别,并没有说“一些(……人)”。虽然“建筑师”就是与牧师、商人、农夫相对应的一类人,但字面上不需要再加上“有一种人”— —原文没有这种强调。

2All very well perhaps from his point of view, but only a little better than the common dilettantism. 徐译“从他的观点来说,是很好的罗”还可以,而戴译“他的观点兴许一点没错”就不妥了,至少“from”没有译出来,而“his point of view”是介词“from”的宾语,不是句子的主语(主语是“All”)。

3 sentimental不容易翻,译为“感情用事的”似乎不妥。觉得接近“注重情趣的”。

4It was only how to put a core of truth within the ornaments and not how the inhabitant, the indweller, might build truly within and without, and let the ornaments take care of themselves.

建筑师不应该只关注飞檐的装饰,而应关注房屋的基础;仅强调装饰蕴含真实还不够,居住者使住房形成建筑之美。这种房子凝聚着住房人的需求与性格,不需要多少装饰也是美的,即“the ornaments take care of themselves”。

建筑之美源自居住者的性格(architectural beauty grows out of the character of the home dweller),他所见到的真正的美都是不经意而产生的(the only real beauty that he finds was unconsciously produced),最质朴无华者最美(the most humble houses are the most beautiful)。

5that the tortoise got his spotted shell, or the shell-fish its mother-o'-pearl tints, by such a contract as the inhabitants of Broadway their Trinity Church?

这句里动词是“got”,后面两小句虽说省略了,但动词仍然是“got”。徐译“乌龟获得斑纹的甲壳,贝类获得珠母的光泽,就像百老汇的居民获得三一教堂似的”其中“获得”三次重复,译出原文的对比和照应了。戴译“认定乌龟生有纹饰的龟壳,贝类生有珠母的光泽,这些就像百老汇的居民拥有三一教堂一样”译为“生有”和“拥有”,让人觉得是两个完全不同的词,就没能译出原文的对比和照应。

6a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell。这个句子里的“has no more than”并不是“has nothing to do with”,而是说“人与房子建筑风格的关系并不比乌龟与其壳的关系更紧密”,换句话说“人需要房子就像乌龟需要壳一样”。如果译为“不相关”“不太相干”,似与这段所表达的梭罗主张“建筑之美源自居住者的性格”相矛盾。

7nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard. The enemy will find it out. He may turn pale when the trial comes. 用“战士”和“敌人”来作比,不清楚为什么。

8who is the only builder。我怀疑这里的“builder”建筑的不是“房子”而是指“房子之美(architectural beauty)”。“居住者是房屋之美的唯一建筑师”或者说“房子美否,全在于居住者”,这也正是“architectural beauty has gradually out of the necessities and character of the indweller”所要表达的意思。“居住者是房屋的唯一建筑师”讲不通。

(戴欢译)确实,在我们的国度有一些被称作建筑师的人。我起码听说过一位建筑师是这样的:他想使建筑物上的装饰具备一种真实的核心、一种必要性,因而有一种美感,好像是奉了神谕一般。他的观点兴许一点没错,不过他只比业余美术爱好者高明那么一丁点。这个建筑学上多愁善感的改革家,他首先从飞檐着手,而不是从基础开始。他一味地想着怎样在装饰中置放真实的核心,如同在糖拌梅子中添加进一粒杏仁或一粒香菜籽——我倒认为吃杏仁不加糖更有益处——但是为何那些真正的居住者不让他的房屋朴素本色,让那些装饰顺其自然。有哪个聪明人会认为装饰只是外在的,仅属于皮毛的东西——会认定乌龟生有纹饰的龟壳,贝类生有珠母的光泽,这些就像百老汇的居民拥有三一教堂一样,用得着为它去签什么合约吗?一个人与他自己的房屋建筑风格不太相干,如同乌龟与它的龟壳不太相干一样;士兵不需要在百无聊赖时,将他的士气用精确的色彩标识在战旗上,敌人自会明了,临到要命的关头,他会吓得面无血色。照我看来,这位建筑师似乎是趴在他的飞檐之上,欲说还休地向那位卤莽的居住者低声讲解着他的模棱两可的真理,而居住者其实比他懂得更多。

我现在所目睹的建筑之美,我已明白它是由内向外而渐渐萌发的,是从居住者的需求和秉性中萌发的,居住者才是惟一的建筑师。美感源自于他下意识的真实感受和高贵的气质,因而,外表不在他的考虑之列。这种有增无减的美感如果注定产生的话,那他已于浑然不觉中拥有了生命之美。

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