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细品名篇醉翁亭(二十七)--“野芳发而幽香”句英译评析  

2012-11-24 21:51:27|  分类: 名篇细品 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1) In spring, blooming flowers send forth a delicate bouquet; in summer, the flourishing trees afford deep shades; in autumn, the sky is high and crisp, and the frost, snowy white; in winter, the water of the creek recedes and the bare bedrock emerges. (罗经国译)

2) Then in the course of the four seasons you find wild flowers burgeoning and blooming with a secret fragrance, the stately trees put on their mantle of leaves and give a goodly shade, until wind and frost touch all with austerity, the water sinks low and the rocks at the bottom of the stream emerge.(杨宪益译)

3) Now the wild grass emits a refreshing perfume; now exquisite trees grow luxuriantly and cast a deep shade; now wind and frost, high and pure, go their rounds; now the water becomes clear and the pebbles are exposed to view. These are the four seasons in the mountains.(刘师舜译)

4) And then the wild flowers blossom, emitting their delicate fragrance, the woods are clad with lush foliage. Again, nature is hoary with rime and stones stand out in the shallow stream—all this shows the changes of the four seasons in the mountains. (谢百魁译)

5) Sweet smell emitting from the fresh wild grass; luxuriant shades made by the fine trees; the high, clear skies, windy and frosty; rocks standing out of receding water—these are the changes of the four seasons in the mountains. (潘正英译)

6) The wild-flowers exhaling their perfume from the darkness of some shady dell, the luxuriant foliage of the dense forest of beautiful trees, the clear frosty wind, and the naked boulders of the lessening torrent—these are the indications of spring, summer, autumn, and winter. Giles译)

7) Wild flowers bloom with their hidden scents, beautiful trees leaf out with deepening shade, then winds rise and pure frost appears, the water level drops and the rocks protrude—such are the four seasons amid the mountains. (Robert E. Hegel)

8) The wild flowers give off their pure perfume; the trees with beautiful foliage afford luxuriant shade; the wind blows high while hoarfrost appears; the pebbles come out when water sinks—all these are the phenomena of the four seasons on the hills.treasury版)

9) The wildflowers blooming with a heady fragrance, fine trees exquisitely dappling shadow, the wind crisp and the sky high and clear, the water falling low so that the rocks begin to show, these are the four seasons amongst the mountains.dharmaraja版)

10) The country fragrance is faintly redolent; fine trees flower and flourish in the shade; the wind is high and the frost is pure; the water level lowers and the riverbed rocks come forth: these are the four seasons amid the mountains. (wiki)

11) When the wild flowers bloom, a faint fragrance permeates; when the sturdy trees flourish, they turn bosky and bowery; when the wind drifts high, frost appears white; when the water recedes, rocks emerge. These shifts typify the four seasons in the hills. (徐英才译)

 

“野芳发而幽香,佳木秀而繁阴,风霜高洁,水落而石出者,山间之四时也。”这句很典型地展示了“……者……也”句式的翻译。“者”字部分较长,若直接译作主语,句子就很可能会“头重”。欧阳修没有说“野芳发而幽香者,山间之春也;佳木秀而繁阴者,山间之夏也;风高霜洁者,山间之秋也;水落石出者,山间之冬也。”分开说就不够紧凑,而且节奏也变缓变拖沓了。

汉语里的“四时”是暗指,英译“spring,summer,autumn,winter”就直露了。另外,“山间之四时也”在句尾,从信息结构上是新信息,若提到句首就成了已知信息,也没有了“……者……也”句的揭秘功效。

    《醉翁亭记》一个极为突出的特点,就是“也”字句。整篇文章除了三个设问句:“作亭者谁?”“名之者谁?”“太守谓谁?”每一句都以“也”字结尾。

周振甫先生谈到文中“…………也”句时说:也有不用“者”字的,即不点明的,像“醉翁之意不在酒,在乎山水之间也。山水之乐,得之心而寓之酒也”。这两句里不用“者”字,不点明这里在讲什么。倘加点明,那末“意不在酒,在乎山水者,借山水以寄慨”,“山水之乐,得之心而寓之酒也[],借酒以消愁也”。这样一点明,就不含蓄了,就落痕迹也,所以不用“者”,不点明。

多数译者将“者”字部分译成四个独立句子,并以分号连接,说明译者意识到了四句之间不可割裂的关系。而前文“其西南诸峰,林壑尤美,望之蔚然而深秀者,琅琊也”句,众译者几乎都将“者”字部分断成了两句。

下文还有更长的“……者……也”句,翻译问题会更加突出。我们也许会同意,应该找一个统一模式来译“(……者)……也”句式,以便更好地传递原作风格。

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