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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(111)  

2012-02-26 22:43:59|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Be sure that you give the poor the aid they most need, though it be your example which leaves them far behind. If you give money, spend yourself with it, and do not merely abandon it to them. We make curious mistakes sometimes. Often the poor man is not so cold and hungry as he is dirty and ragged and gross. It is partly his taste, and not merely his misfortune. If you give him money, he will perhaps buy more rags with it. I was wont to pity the clumsy Irish laborers who cut ice on the pond, in such mean and ragged clothes, while I shivered in my more tidy and somewhat more fashionable garments, till, one bitter cold day, one who had slipped into the water came to my house to warm him, and I saw him strip off three pairs of pants and two pairs of stockings ere he got down to the skin, though they were dirty and ragged enough, it is true, and that he could afford to refuse the extra garments which I offered him, he had so many intra ones. This ducking was the very thing he needed. Then I began to pity myself, and I saw that it would be a greater charity to bestow on me a flannel shirt than a whole slop-shop on him. There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root, and it may be that he who bestows the largest amount of time and money on the needy is doing the most by his mode of life to produce that misery which he strives in vain to relieve. It is the pious slave-breeder devoting the proceeds of every tenth slave to buy a Sunday's liberty for the rest. Some show their kindness to the poor by employing them in their kitchens. Would they not be kinder if they employed themselves there? You boast of spending a tenth part of your income in charity; maybe you should spend the nine tenths so, and done with it. Society recovers only a tenth part of the property then. Is this owing to the generosity of him in whose possession it is found, or to the remissness of the officers of justice?

(徐迟译)你一定要给穷人以他们最需要的帮助,虽然他们落在你的后面本是你的造孽。如果你施舍了钱给他们,你应该自己陪同他们花掉这笔钱,不要扔给他们就算了。我们有时候犯很奇怪的错误。往往是那个穷人,邋遢、褴楼又粗野,但并没有冻馁之忧,他并不怎么不幸,他往往还乐此不疲呢。你要是给了他钱,他也许就去买更多褴褛的衣服。我常常怜悯那些穷相十足的爱尔兰工人,在湖上挖冰,穿得这样褴褛,这样贫贱,而我穿的是干净的似乎是比较合时的衣服,却还冷得发抖呢,直到有一个严寒的冷天,一个掉进了冰里的人来到我的屋中取暖,我看他脱下了三条裤子和两双袜子才见到皮肤,虽然裤子袜子破敝不堪,这是真的,可是他拒绝了我将要献呈于他的额外衣服,因为他有着这许多的里面衣服。活该他落水的了。于是我开始可怜我自己,要是给我一件法兰绒衬衫,那就比给他一座旧衣铺子慈善得多。一千人在砍着罪恶的树枝,只有一个人砍伐了罪恶的根,说不定那个把时间和金钱在穷人身上花得最多的人,正是在用他那种生活方式引起最多的贫困与不幸,现在他却在徒然努力于挽救之道。正是道貌岸然的蓄奴主,拿出奴隶生产的利息的十分之一来,给其余的奴隶星期日的自由。有人为表示对穷人赐恩而叫他到厨房去工作。为什么他们自己不下厨房工作,这不是更慈悲了吗?你吹牛说,你的收入的十分之一捐给慈善事业了,也许你应该捐出十分之九,就此结束。那未,社会收回的只是十分之一的财富。这是由于占有者的慷慨呢,还是由于持正义者的疏忽呢?

1it be your example which leaves them far behind. 这里的“example”是“榜样”还是“警戒”?王译“是你造成的”,戴译“是你犯下的过失”,徐译“是你的造孽”,感觉责备一个重过一个

2Often the poor man is not so cold and hungry as he is dirty and ragged and gross.这句里的“not so… as …”王译用“与其说……不如说……”较为恰当。

3I shivered in my more tidy and somewhat more fashionable garments徐译“我穿的是干净的似乎是比较合时的衣服,却还冷得发抖呢”。言下之意似乎是穿干净合时的衣服就不会冷。

4I was wont to pity the clumsy Irish laborers till, one bitter cold day, …徐译“我常常怜悯那些穷相十足的爱尔兰工人……直到有一个严寒的冷天……”;戴译“直到……我这才改变了原有的看法”比较恰当。“till”一词表明我了对爱尔兰工人的态度由怜悯到不怜悯的转变, “直到”后最好要提到态度转变,不要湮没于其它描述里。

5it is true, and that he could afford to refuse the extra garments which I offered him, he had so many intra ones.徐译“2他拒绝了我将要献呈于他的额外衣服”,戴译“他谢绝了我送给他的这多余衣服”,王义国译“但他却能够做到拒绝我提供给他的额外的衣服”,仲泽译“他还是拒绝了我给他的外衣”,张知遥译“他谢绝了我给他的衣服”,都是“没要”,而我觉得“he could afford to refuse”是“接受了。”他破衣服多却又来者不拒,正与前面说的“你给他钱,他可能会用这钱买更多的破衣服”相一致。

另外,“extra”与“intra”相对应,是指衣服的“内”与“外”,可能也有“额外”之义。梭罗文字中的双关太常见了。

6There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root. 这句有数字的对照,可译“……的有一千,……只一个”。进行时态的翻译,有了“在……”字,“着”字就可省掉了。“罪恶的树枝”不如“罪恶的枝梢/枝桠/枝杈”好,且后面应以“罪恶的树根”与之相对。

7Ken Kifer说,梭罗在此终于直接谈论这事了。消除贫困的一个途径就是改变接受救助者的态度。人们贫穷常常不是因为收入不足而是因为不能管理自己的资源或不能照顾好自己的身体。在这样情况下,教育要比金钱重要得多。(Here, Thoreau finally addresses the matter directly. One of the ways to eliminate poverty is to change the attitudes of the people who are receiving the help. Very often, people are poor not because of insufficient income but due to inability to manage their resources or take care of their health well. In these cases, education is more important than money.

(戴欢译)应该确信的是,你给予穷人的帮助应是他们最为需要的,尽管他们极为贫困本是你犯下的过失。如果你向他们送钱,你当亲自陪他们去将钱花掉,而不要将钱扔给他们就一走了之。我们有时犯的错误简直稀奇古怪。那个穷人虽然又脏又臭,衣衫褴褛呆头呆脑,有时却并不像我们所想的那样困苦不堪,只不过是因为他习惯如此而已。你如果向他施钱,他或许会去添置更破烂的衣服呢。

我怜悯那些爱尔兰劳工已经习以为常了。他们在湖上凿挖冰块,身着破烂衣装,如此低贱,而我穿着更整洁而稍稍有点时髦的衣服,且还冷得浑身打颤。直到在一个寒冷的冬日,一个不慎滑入冰水中的劳工,来到我的房中暖和身子,我这才改变了原有的看法。我看着他脱下三条裤子和两双袜子,才露出皮肤。虽然这些衣服真够破烂不堪的,可是他谢绝了我送给他的这多余衣服,因为他已经有了里面穿的衣服,这事可一点不假落水到成了他惟一的需求。于是我开始自我怜悯了,我意识到,如果送我一件法兰绒衬衣,比送给他一间旧衣店更是一件善举。

有一千人在伐着罪恶的枝桠,却只有一人在猛砍着罪恶之根。或许正是那人,他为贫困者捐赠了最多的时间和金钱,也正是由于他的这种生活方式因而造就出了最多的悲惨不幸者,而他却徒劳地尽力,进行着挽救的善举。正是这些道貌岸然的奴隶主,捐出奴隶生产的十分之一的盈利,去为另外的奴隶买得一个星期天的自由。有人为了显示对穷人的仁慈,而雇他到厨房去干活。如果他们雇请自己去厨房干活,岂不显得更加仁慈?你自吹自擂地说,你为慈善事业捐出了十分之一的收入;或许你应该捐出十分之九才对。因为社会只收回了十分之一的财富。这种慈善之举,是应归功于占有者的慷慨大度呢,还是归咎于主持正义者的疏忽大意?

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