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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(113)  

2012-03-01 19:02:50|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I would not subtract anything from the praise that is due to philanthropy, but merely demand justice for all who by their lives and works are a blessing to mankind. I do not value chiefly a man's uprightness and benevolence, which are, as it were, his stem and leaves. Those plants of whose greenness withered we make herb tea for the sick serve but a humble use, and are most employed by quacks. I want the flower and fruit of a man; that some fragrance be wafted over from him to me, and some ripeness flavor our intercourse. His goodness must not be a partial and transitory act, but a constant superfluity, which costs him nothing and of which he is unconscious. This is a charity that hides a multitude of sins. The philanthropist too often surrounds mankind with the remembrance of his own castoff griefs as an atmosphere, and calls it sympathy. We should impart our courage, and not our despair, our health and ease, and not our disease, and take care that this does not spread by contagion.

(徐迟译)我并不要从慈善应得的赞美中减去什么,我只要求公平,对一切有利于人类的生命与工作应一视同仁。我不以为一个人的正直和慈善是主要的价值,它们不过是他的枝枝叶叶。那种枝叶,褪去了叶绿素,做成了药茶给病人喝,就是它有了一些卑微的用处,多数是走四方的郎中用它们。我要的是人中的花朵和果实;让他的芬芳传送给我,让他的成熟的馨香在我们交接中熏陶我。他的良善不能是局部的、短暂的行为,而是常持的富足有余,他的施与于他无损,于他自己,也无所知。这是一种将万恶隐藏起来的慈善。慈善家经常记着他要用自己散发出来的那种颓唐悲戚的气氛,来绕住人类,美其名曰同情心。我们应该传播给人类的是我们的勇气而不是我们的失望,是我们的健康与舒泰,而不是我们的病容,可得小心别传染了疾病

1the praise that is due to philanthropy这赞美既然是慈善应得的,那就不是溢美之辞(即过分吹嘘的话语)了。

2demand justice for all who by their lives and works are a blessing to mankind. 徐译“对一切有利于人类的生命与工作应一视同仁。”从句中“for all who”可以看出,这公正是对人,不是对工作。

      3his stem and leaves一个人的茎与叶是相对于花与实而言的。徐译“枝枝叶叶”即略有偏离,因为枝叶相对于主干;戴译“青枝绿叶”偏离就更远了,到了强调枝叶之青绿与否了。

4Those plants ……serve but a humble use. 这些茎叶只可供江湖郎中做药茶之用,用处极卑微,不能与持续的馨香相比。

5and calls it sympathy. 名其曰“同情”。徐译“美其名曰同情心”就已增出一“美”字,戴译“还大言不惭地”,更多出“还大言不惭地”。

6and take care that this does not spread by contagion. 这句里“可得小心”什么?不是传染疾病,其实这句里没有“疾病”一词。要当心是不要以传染而使之蔓延散布。

7Ken Kifer评道:梭罗在建议我们改变我们自己,这样,慈善将不再是有意识的值得祝贺的行为而是我们不特意关注的无意识行为。他认为人们想改造世界的一个主要原因是诸如内疚或疾病等内在问题。耶稣说“为什么你只挑剔弟兄眼中的小刺,而忽视自己眼中的大梁呢?”梭罗也暗示慈善可能会由于错误的原因而有坏结果。当然,告诫人们说他们低劣从而毁掉他们的文化其破坏将远大于获益。(Thoreau is suggesting that we change and reform ourselves, so that an act of charity is not a conscious act deserving of congratulations but so that it is an unconscious act to which we pay no attention. He believes that one of the main causes for wanting to reform the world is due to internal problems, such as guilt or illness. Jesus said, "Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thy own eye?" Thoreau also suggests that charity may have bad consequences because it was given for the wrong reason. Certainly, teaching people that they are inferior and/or destroying their culture does much more damage than good.

(戴欢译)我并非是要对慈善的溢美之辞做些删减,我只是要为那些人讨还公道,他们的生命和工作带给了人类极大的恩惠。我并不感到一个人的正直和仁慈是其主要的价值,这些原本就应是他的青枝绿叶。那些枝叶,我们将它晒干,制成了草药汤给病人服用,只因它还有卑微的用途,且多为江湖郎中所用;让他鲜花的芳香熏陶着我,让他硕果的美味在我心中交融;他的仁慈不可是一种局部而短期的举动,而是源源不绝的满溢;他的施舍无损于他,而成为他的下意识行为。这样的一种善举,包藏了如此之多的罪恶。慈善家没忘了极其频繁地去散发他自己的悲戚,以此来营造缠绕人类的悲戚氛围,还大言不惭地美称为“同情心”。

我们应该多多授人以我们的勇气而非我们的绝望,授人以我们的健康舒坦而非我们的愁容病态,当心别去传染疾病。

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