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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(154)  

2015-09-01 22:55:51|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I think that having learned our letters we should read the best that is in literature, and not be forever repeating our a b abs, and words of one syllable, in the fourth or fifth classes, sitting on the lowest and foremost form all our lives. Most men are satisfied if they read or hear read, and perchance have been convicted by the wisdom of one good book, the Bible, and for the rest of their lives vegetate and dissipate their faculties in what is called easy reading. There is a work in several volumes in our Circulating Library entitled "Little Reading," which I thought referred to a town of that name which I had not been to. There are those who, like cormorants and ostriches, can digest all sorts of this, even after the fullest dinner of meats and vegetables, for they suffer nothing to be wasted. If others are the machines to provide this provender, they are the machines to read it. They read the nine thousandth tale about Zebulon and Sophronia, and how they loved as none had ever loved before, and neither did the course of their true love run smooth, -- at any rate, how it did run and stumble, and get up again and go on! how some poor unfortunate got up on to a steeple, who had better never have gone up as far as the belfry; and then, having needlessly got him up there, the happy novelist rings the bell for all the world to come together and hear, O dear! how he did get down again! For my part, I think that they had better metamorphose all such aspiring heroes of universal noveldom into man weather-cocks, as they used to put heroes among the constellations, and let them swing round there till they are rusty, and not come down at all to bother honest men with their pranks. The next time the novelist rings the bell I will not stir though the meeting-house burn down. "The Skip of the Tip-Toe-Hop, a Romance of the Middle Ages, by the celebrated author of 'Tittle-Tol-Tan,' to appear in monthly parts; a great rush; don't all come together." All this they read with saucer eyes, and erect and primitive curiosity, and with unwearied gizzard, whose corrugations even yet need no sharpening, just as some little four-year-old bencher his two-cent gilt-covered edition of Cinderella, -- without any improvement, that I can see, in the pronunciation, or accent, or emphasis, or any more skill in extracting or inserting the moral. The result is dulness of sight, a stagnation of the vital circulations, and a general deliquium and sloughing off of all the intellectual faculties. This sort of gingerbread is baked daily and more sedulously than pure wheat or rye-and-Indian in almost every oven, and finds a surer market.

(徐迟译)我想,我们识字之后,我们就应该读文学作品中最好的东西,不要永远在重复abab和单音字,不要四年级五年级年年留级,不要终身坐在小学最低年级教室前排。许多人能读就满足了,或听到人家阅读就满足了,也许只领略到一本好书《圣经》的智慧,于是他们只读一些轻松的东西,让他们的官能放荡或单调地度过余生。在我们的流通图书馆里,有一部好几卷的作品叫做小读物,我想大约也是我没有到过的一个市镇的名字吧。有种人,像贪食的水鸭和鸵乌,能够消化一切,甚至在大吃了肉类和蔬菜都很丰盛的一顿之后也能消化,因为他们不愿意浪费。如果说别人是供给此种食物的机器,他们就是过屠门而大嚼的阅读机器。他们读了九千个关于西布伦和赛福隆尼亚的故事,他们如何相爱,从没有人这样地相爱过,而且他们的恋爱经过也不平坦,——总之是,他们如何爱,如何栽跟斗,如何再爬起来,如何再相爱!某个可怜的不幸的人如何爬上了教堂的尖顶,他最好不爬上钟楼;他既然已经毫无必要地到了尖顶上面了,那欢乐的小说家于是打起钟来,让全世界都跑拢来,听他说,啊哟,天啊!他如何又下来了!照我的看法,他们还不如把这些普遍的小说世界里往上爬的英雄人物一概变形为风信鸡人,好像他们时常把英雄放在星座之中一样,让那些风信鸡旋转不已,直到它们锈掉为止,却千万别让它们下地来胡闹,麻烦了好人们。下一回,小说家再敲钟,哪怕那公共会场烧成了平地,也休想我动弹一下。《的--咯的腾达》一部中世纪传奇,写《铁特尔-托尔-但恩》的那位著名作家所著;按月连载;连日拥挤不堪,欲购从速。他们用盘子大的眼睛,坚定不移的原始的好奇,极好的胃纳,来读这些东西,胃的褶皱甚至也无需磨练,正好像0.那些四岁大的孩子们,成天坐在椅子上,看着售价两分钱的烫金封面的《灰姑娘》——据我所见,他们读后,连发音,重音,加强语气这些方面都没有进步,不必提他们对题旨的了解与应用题旨的技术了。其结果是目力衰退,一切生机凝滞,普遍颓唐,智力的官能完全像蜕皮一样蜕掉。这一类的姜汁面包,是几乎每一天从每一个烤面包的炉子里烤出来,比纯粹的面粉做的或黑麦粉和印第安玉米粉做的面包更吸引人,在市场上销路更广。

    1) sitting on the lowest and foremost form all our lives. 这里的“lowest and foremost form”是指什么?我以为是说人们识字后没有阅读文学而一直停留在abab这种最低最初的形式上,而Jeffrey 注释说:“Backless bench in the front of district schools for the youngest children. ”终生都像学校最小的孩子坐在最前排最低的凳子上。

      2) perchance have been convicted by the wisdom of one good book, the Bible, 直译当是“也许被一本好书——《圣经》——的智慧所判决(有罪)”,看不出“convicted”译为“领悟”的证据。

      3) can digest all sorts of this, 是说对这种(阅读材)料,有些人消化力很强。不是“消化一切”,也不是“仍能将残羹剩菜一扫而光”。

      4) They read the nine thousandth tale 这里的序数词译成“第九千”还是“九千”是一道有趣的讨论题。

5) who had better never have gone up as far as the belfry;这大概是从小说家写作角度说的,爬上教堂尖顶的这个人最好原来从未爬至钟楼那么高。

6) having needlessly got him up there,这句是说,既然(小说家)让他爬到了塔尖,——这原本是不必要的——却又让大家来看,后来竟然又让他来下了。这是梭罗在取笑言情小说的老套路。徐译“他既然已经毫无必要地到了尖顶”和戴译“他既然已鬼使神差地爬上尖顶”都没有译出“got him up”。

7) "The Skip of the Tip-Toe-Hop, a Romance of the Middle Ages, by the celebrated author of 'Tittle-Tol-Tan,' to appear in monthly parts; a great rush; don't all come together." 戴译:……而且标有如“月月连载,读者甚多,欲购从速”之类的广告语。将原来引号移动了。

8) or any more skill in extracting or inserting the moral.徐译“对题旨的了解与应用题旨的技术”;戴译“在表现与渲染主题方面”。柯林斯字典上说:The moral of a story or event is what you learn from it about how you should or should not behave。是指故事的寓意。从故事中抽取或者向故事里加进最富教育意义的寓意,在这些方面也没见有更多技巧。

9) Ken Kifer的评说:Thoreau suggests that people should learn to read better literature and should not stick to very basic reading. There is a great deal that is written in simple, easy, and uncomplicated language that does not require thought or reflection, and Thoreau sees little value in this kind of reading. 读过一篇题为《〈读者〉伤害了真正的阅读文化》的文章,观点有些类似。

(戴欢译)我认为,当我们能识文断字之后,就应去读最优秀的文学作品,不要永无休止地去重复字母歌和单音字,别在四五年级留级,终身坐在最低年级教室的前排。大多数人能够读懂或是听懂别人阅读就心满意足了,或许仅领悟了一本好书《圣经》智慧,因此,在一生的其余时间只去读些所谓休闲的书,生活过得单调乏味,虚度了光阴。

在我们的公共图书馆里,有一部数卷的作品名叫《袖珍读本》,我以为它是一个尚未去过的镇名吧。有这么一类人,他们好像鱼鹰和鸵鸟一样贪婪,消化能力很强,即使在饱餐了一顿肉食和蔬菜烹制的美食之后,仍能将残羹剩菜一扫而光,生怕浪费掉了。倘若其他人是供应这种美食的机器,这类人则不知饱足的阅读机器。他们阅读了9000个关于西布伦和赛芙隆娅的爱情故事,全都是讲述他俩如何相爱,爱得如何死去活来、史无前例,以及曲折的恋爱历程——总而言之,他俩如何艰难相恋,如何爱情遭到不幸,跌倒了又爬起来,怎样再续恋情!某个可怜的不幸之人是如何爬到教堂的塔尖上的,他要是没爬上去就万事大吉了。接下来就是他既然已鬼使神差地爬上尖顶,那快活的小说家就向全世界敲响了警钟,让人们围拢过来,聆听他卖关子。噢,天哪!他怎么又下来了!在我看来,这些作家最好将所有小说中的痴男信女一律变形为指示风向的铁皮小人儿,置于塔尖之上,就像他们常常将英雄升上星座一样,让他们在塔尖上随风旋转,直到锈掉为止,千万别叫他们下来搞些恶作剧,骚扰了老实本分的人。下一次,若是小说家又敲响了警钟,即使是教友会的聚会所被大火一烧而光,我也会稳坐钓鱼台的。

一部中世纪的罗曼史《偷情舞会》,由著名作家特尔.托坦恩所著,而且标有如“月月连载,读者甚多,欲购从速”之类的广告语。诸如此类的东西,人们阅读起来眼睛睁得有小碟子大,好奇得要要打破沙锅问到底,胃口也是极好,不怕胃壁损失,好像4岁的小孩坐在小凳子上,读着2美分一本的封面烫金的《灰姑娘》——照我看来,他们读完后在发音、音调、语气等方面没有一点长进,更不用说他们在表现与渲染主题方面学到了什么写作技巧了。结果是读得两眼呆滞、思想颓废、智力下降。这类“姜汁面包”几乎每个烤炉日日都会烤制出来,比用纯小麦或黑麦及印第安玉米烤制的面包更受人喜爱,在市场上也更畅销。
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