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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(157)  

2015-09-14 22:55:25|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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It is not all books that are as dull as their readers. There are probably words addressed to our condition exactly, which, if we could really bear and understand, would be more salutary than the morning or the spring to our lives, and possibly put a new aspect on the face of things for us. How many a man has dated a new era in his life from the reading of a book! The book exists for us, perchance, which will explain our miracles and reveal new ones. The at present unutterable things we may find somewhere uttered. These same questions that disturb and puzzle and confound us have in their turn occurred to all the wise men; not one has been omitted; and each has answered them, according to his ability, by his words and his life. Moreover, with wisdom we shall learn liberality. The solitary hired man on a farm in the outskirts of Concord, who has had his second birth and peculiar religious experience, and is driven as he believes into the silent gravity and exclusiveness by his faith, may think it is not true; but Zoroaster, thousands of years ago, travelled the same road and had the same experience; but he, being wise, knew it to be universal, and treated his neighbors accordingly, and is even said to have invented and established worship among men. Let him humbly commune with Zoroaster then, and through the liberalizing influence of all the worthies, with Jesus Christ himself, and let "our church" go by the board.

    (徐迟译)并不是所有的书都像它们的读者一般愚笨的。可能,有好些话正是针对我们的境遇而说的,如果我们真正倾听了,懂得了这些话,它们之有利于我们的生活,将胜似黎明或阳春,很可能给我们一副新的面目。多少人在读了一本书之后,开始了他生活的新纪元!一本书,能解释我们的奇迹,又能启发新的奇迹,这本书就为我们而存在了。在目前,我们的说不出来的话,也许在别处已经说出来了。那些扰乱了我们,使我们疑难、困惑的问题也曾经发生在所有聪明人心上;一个问题都没有漏掉,而且每一个聪明人都回答过它们,按照各自的能力,用各自的话和各自的生活。再说,有了智慧,我们将领会慷慨的性质。在康科德郊外,有个田庄上的寂寞的雇工,他得到过第二次的诞生,获有了特殊的宗教经验,他相信自己由于他的信念的关系已经进入了沉默的庄重和排斥外物的境界,他也许会觉得我们的话是不对的;但是数千年前,琐罗亚斯德。走过了同样的历程,获有同样的经验;因为他是智慧的,知道这是普遍性的,就用相应的办法对待他的邻人,甚至据说还发明并创设了一个使人敬神的制度。那末,让他谦逊地和琐罗亚斯德精神沟通,并且在一切圣贤的自由影响下,跟耶稣基督精神沟通,然后,让我们的教会滚开吧

    1) possibly put a new aspect on the face of things for us,徐译给我们一副新的面目”,戴译“使我们旧貌换了新颜”。换新颜的应该是“things”,不是“我们”。

      2) The book exists for us, perchance, which will explain our miracles and reveal new ones. 徐译这本书就为我们而存在了;戴译“那它就真是为我们存世了”;王义国译“书之所以为我们而存在”;苏福忠译“这本碰巧为我们而存在的书”;王光林译“书本或许就是为我们生存的”。——这些译法都在说“书为我们而存在”。

我怀疑这句的侧重点并不在“为我们(for us)”,而在“存在(exists)”。一般说来,动词是要重读的,而介词与代词则不重读,因此,若译成“为我们而存在”,则“for us”须是重读强调了。而原文里“for us”并没有用斜体——这是《瓦尔登湖》这本书中常用的强调方式——也没有着重号、下划线、黑体字或字母大写等强调方式。

从上下文看,也没有迹象表明要强调“为我们”。我们表达不出的,有的书里已表达出;我们的问题,先贤已经历过且已在书里回答了。——这些都说“我们需要的书已经存在”,并不强调“为我们”。我倾向王家湘的译法:“……书对我们来说是存在的”。

3) These same questions that disturb and puzzle and confound us have in their turn occurred to all the wise men,徐译“也曾经发生在所有聪明人心上”——何必是“心”上?倒不如是“身”上。戴译“一切智者也同样遇到过”就很好。王义国译“发生在所有的智者身上”;王家湘译“同样也曾在所有智者的身上出现过”也可以。

4) is driven as he believes into the silent gravity and exclusiveness by his faith,这里“is driven by his faith”当是被动语态。王家湘译“受信仰驱使”就译出了被动。这句里的“the silent gravity and exclusiveness”可能是全段落的一个难点。

5) with Jesus Christ himself, and let "our church" go by the board.

这句承前省略了“commune(交谈,谈心)”,汉译不可能漏掉。

himself”这个反身代词的强调也当译出来,如王家湘译“耶稣基督本人

直接与耶稣基督交谈,那“我们的教会”就“go by the board”了。徐译、戴译的“滚”字,语气似乎重了些。详注版里说这个短语“Fallen out of use or discarded, originally signifying something that has fallen overboard and been carried away.

6) Ken Kifer评道:梭罗建议说,我们要是读书,就会发现帮我们走出困境的书,发现为我们打开机遇的书。我就知道有不少书对我的生活有极大影响,其中就有《瓦尔登湖》。不止一次,书中几个字能比任何人说的话带给我更多益处。(Thoreau makes the suggestion that if we read we can discover books that help us out of difficulties or that open new opportunities for us. I know that there are a number of books that have been extremely influential in my life, Walden being one of them. On more than one occasion, a few words from a book have done me much more good than anything anyone could have said.

(戴欢译)并非所有的书卷都如它们的读者一样愚不可及的。可能书中的一些话恰能切中我们的时弊。如果我们真的聆听了,而且完全明了这些词句,它们对我们生活的裨益必将胜过清晨和阳春三月,或许能使我们旧貌换了新颜。有多少人是读了一本书,从而令他的生活翻开了新的一页!一本书若能阐释我们的奇迹,又能显示未来的奇迹,那它就真是为我们存世了。就在今天,我们难以启齿的话语,也许在书中某处已经言明了。这些困扰着我们、弄得我们迷惑不解而狼狈不堪的问题,一切智者也同样遇到过,无一例外。每个智者已力所能及地、以各自的语言和各自的人生来解答了这些难题。况且,拥有了智慧我们才能学会慷慨行事。

在康科德郊外,在某个田园,有个寂寞的雇工,他有着第二次的诞生和独特的宗教体验。因为他的信仰的缘故,他相信自己沉浸于悄无声息的肃穆之中,拒绝外物的亲近,或许他认为书中尽是些虚妄的言辞。但是数千年前,所罗亚斯德就走过了与那位雇工同样的心路,有着同样的历练。可是他聪慧过人,悟出了自己的历练是普遍存在的,因而就能相应地与乡邻交往。据说他创立了祭奉神灵的礼仪。那么,让那位寂寞的雇工谦逊地与所罗亚斯德相互通灵吧,并在一切圣贤的自由影响下,与耶稣基督通灵吧,让“我们的教会”滚到一边去

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