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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(161)  

2016-01-24 12:17:40|  分类: 翻译写作 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I did not read books the first summer; I hoed beans. Nay, I often did better than this. There were times when I could not afford to sacrifice the bloom of the present moment to any work, whether of the head or hands. I love a broad margin to my life. Sometimes, in a summer morning, having taken my accustomed bath, I sat in my sunny doorway from sunrise till noon, rapt in a revery, amidst the pines and hickories and sumachs, in undisturbed solitude and stillness, while the birds sing around or flitted noiseless through the house, until by the sun falling in at my west window, or the noise of some traveller's wagon on the distant highway, I was reminded of the lapse of time. I grew in those seasons like corn in the night, and they were far better than any work of the hands would have been. They were not time subtracted from my life, but so much over and above my usual allowance. I realized what the Orientals mean by contemplation and the forsaking of works. For the most part, I minded not how the hours went. The day advanced as if to light some work of mine; it was morning, and lo, now it is evening, and nothing memorable is accomplished. Instead of singing like the birds, I silently smiled at my incessant good fortune. As the sparrow had its trill, sitting on the hickory before my door, so had I my chuckle or suppressed warble which he might hear out of my nest. My days were not days of the week, bearing the stamp of any heathen deity, nor were they minced into hours and fretted by the ticking of a clock; for I lived like the Puri Indians, of whom it is said that "for yesterday, today, and tomorrow they have only one word, and they express the variety of meaning by pointing backward for yesterday forward for tomorrow, and overhead for the passing day." This was sheer idleness to my fellow-townsmen, no doubt; but if the birds and flowers had tried me by their standard, I should not have been found wanting. A man must find his occasions in himself, it is true. The natural day is very calm, and will hardly reprove his indolence.

(徐迟译)第一年夏天,我没有读书;我种豆。不,我比干这个还好。有时候,我不能把眼前的美好的时间牺牲在任何工作中,无论是脑的或手的工作。我爱给我的生命留有更多余地。有时候,在一个夏天的早晨里,照常洗过澡之后,我坐在阳光下的门前,从日出坐到正午,坐在松树,山核桃树和黄栌树中间,在没有打扰的寂寞与宁静之中,凝神沉思,那时鸟雀在四周唱歌,或默不作声地疾飞而过我的屋子,直到太阳照上我的西窗,或者远处公路上传来一些旅行者的车辆的辚辚声,提醒我时间的流逝。我在这样的季节中生长,好像玉米生长在夜间一样,这比任何手上的劳动好得不知多少了。这样做不是从我的生命中减去了时间,而是在我通常的时间里增添了许多,还超产了许多。我明白了东方人的所谓沉思以及抛开工作的意思了。大体上,虚度岁月,我不在乎。自昼在前进,仿佛只是为了照亮我的某种工作;可是刚才还是黎明,你瞧,现在已经是晚上,我并没有完成什么值得纪念的工作。我也没有像鸣禽一般地歌唱,我只静静地微笑,笑我自己幸福无涯。正像那麻雀,蹲在我门前的山核桃树上,啁啾地叫着,我也窃窃笑着,或抑制了我的啁啾之声,怕它也许从我的巢中听到了。我的一天并不是一个个星期中的一天,它没有用任何异教的神祗来命名,也没有被切碎为小时的细末子,也没有因滴答的钟声而不安;因为我喜欢像印度的普里人,据说对于他们,“代表昨天,今天和明天的是同一个字,而在表示不同的意义时,他们一面说这个字一面做手势,手指后面的算昨天,手指前面的算明天,手指头顶的便是今天。”在我的市民同胞们眼中,这纯粹是懒惰;可是,如果用飞鸟和繁花的标准来审判我的话,我想我是毫无缺点的。人必须从其自身中间找原由,这话极对。自然的日子很宁静,它也不责备他懒惰。

    1There were times when生命中有这样的时光,美好得让你舍不得用来劳作,应该静静地享受。这一部分是句子的主要成分,有别于作副词“有时(sometimes)”。

      2flitted noiseless through the house, 徐译“默不作声地疾飞而过我的屋子”;戴译“悄然无声地从我屋前突飞而过”;王义国译“无声地从房屋里掠过”。Through强调从房子里穿过,而不是从屋前。“从房屋里掠过”也有问题,“掠”字是指从表面轻擦而过。

3I grew in those seasons like corn in the night,我在这静默时光中成长,就像玉米在夜里生长一样。Seasons就是指梭罗从早晨坐到中午,又到太阳西照,这样静谧美好的时间段。

4they were far better than any work of the hands would have been. 这里的“any work of the hands”,徐译“任何手上的劳动”;戴译“手头的任何工作”;王义国译“任何手中的活”。其实,前面刚出现过“any work, whether of the head or hands.”那里与脑力劳动一并出现时,译成“体力劳动”不难。这里译成“手上的”“手头的”“手中的”都不妥,因为这些都是强调“正在做的”而不是“动手的”。记得曾有教授讲“放下手中的活”,不是“lay down the work in his hands”而是“stop what he was doing”。

5The day advanced译成“白昼在前进”太直而硬了。应当就是前面说的从日出到日中又到日斜,也就是本句里的“刚才还是早晨,转眼现在就是晚上了”。

6As the sparrow had its trill, sitting on the hickory before my door, so had I my chuckle or suppressed warble which he might hear out of my nest.

梭里在这里描写的“the sparrow had its trill”应该是褒义的,悦耳的鸣唱,若译成“叽叽喳喳叫个不停”,让人觉得梭罗讨厌鸟叫,这不妥当。

7This was sheer idleness to my fellow-townsmen, no doubt. 梭罗坐在阳光融融的门口,听着林中鸟鸣,心旷神怡,一坐半天。这是彻底的清闲,纯粹的闲暇。若译“这是纯粹的懒惰行径”, 即便是同胞眼里的看法,“懒惰”与“行径”里的贬义色彩也过于浓了。

(戴欢译)第一年的夏季,我没去读书,我去种豆了。不,我常常干比这更有意趣的事。有时,我可不愿将这如花一般的好时光耗费在劳动中,无论是体力还是脑力劳动。我喜爱我的人生中有闲暇的余地。有时,在夏季的一个清晨,我像往常一样沐浴之后,坐在阳光融融的门前,从红日东升直坐到艳阳当头的正午,坐在这一片松树、山核桃树和漆树的林中,坐在远离尘嚣的孤寂和静谧中,沉思默想。此时鸟雀在四处啁啾,或是悄然无声地从我屋前突飞而过,直到太阳照临我的西窗,直到远处的马路上传过来旅行马车的辚辚声,才让我在时光的流逝中如梦初醒。我们在这样的季节中成长,仿佛玉米在夜间生长一样,手头的任何工作都远不及此中的快意。这样做并非是我虚掷了光阴,而是大大延长了我有限的生命。

我领悟到了东方人所谓的沉思默想和暂弃劳作的其中意味。在很大程度上,我并不在意时光的流逝。白昼在行进,好像为我的工作点起了明灯。清晨刚刚过去,看哪,转眼黑夜降临,我并没有做出什么值得留恋的事来。我并未如鸟儿一般鸣唱,我只默默地浅笑着,对着我无边的好运道浅笑着。犹如那麻雀,栖息在我门前的山核桃树上,叽叽喳喳叫个不停。我也低声轻笑,但压低了声音,怕它听到了我的“巢中”的声响。我的每天并非是一周中的一天,它没有烙上任何异教徒神灵的印迹,也没有被分切成零碎的小时和分秒,或被嘀哒的钟声扰得烦躁不安。因为我喜欢像印度的普里人一样生活。据说,普里人在表达昨天、今天、明天时均用同一个字;在具体表示某一天时,就一边说出那个字,一边用手势比划,手指向后表示昨天,手指向前表示明天,手指向头顶则表示即将过去的今天。毫无疑问,在我同镇人眼里,这是纯粹的懒惰行径。但是,假如让鸟雀和花朵以它们的标准来评判我的话,我应该是个完美无缺的人。一个人必须从自身寻找机缘,真是所言极是了。自然的日子很是宁静,它从不自责懒惰。

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