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细品名篇醉翁亭(二十九)——“负者歌于途”句英译评析  

2016-07-25 16:22:39|  分类: 名篇细品 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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至于负者歌于途,行者休于树,前者呼,后者应,伛偻提携,往来而不绝者,滁人游也。

1. 罗经国: Carriers are singing all along the way, and pedestrians are taking rest beneath the trees. Some are shouting from the fore and are answered by others from behind. There are hunchbacked old folks, and children led by their elders. They are people from Chu zhou who have come here in an endless stream.

2. 杨宪益: And the local people may be seen making their way there and back in an endless stream, the old and infirm as well as infants in arms, men carrying burdens who sing as they go, passers-by stopping to rest beneath the trees, those in front calling out and those behind answering.

3. 刘师舜: People carrying burdens sing as they go, travelers pause to rest under the trees, those walking in front give a shout and those following behind respond. The travelers, with their backs bent, carry their children and come and go incessantly. These are the people of Chuchow journeying on the road.

4. 谢百魁: As for the carriers singing on the way, the ramblers resting in the trees’ shade, the men walking ahead calling and being answered by those trailing behind, and the senile trudging with bowed bodies or the adults leading their children by the hand, all forming an uninterrupted passage of people to and fro –it is the Chu folks sauntering on the mountain.

5. 潘正英: As for the carriers on the road, the wayfarers taking rest under the trees, some shouting ahead and some score behind, and others bent with burdens going to and fro without a break—these are visitors from Chu itself.

6. Giles: Burden-carriers sing their way along the road, and travellers rest a while under the trees; shouts from one, responses from another; old people hobbling onwards with baskets or packages in their hands; backwards and forwards all day long without a break;—these are the people of Ch'u.

7. Robert E Hegel: Those who carry loads on their backs sing along the path; sojourners rest beneath the trees. The ones in front call out and those behind respond. Some are bent over with age and others so young that they must be led by the hand. They come and go without cease—such are the travelers around Ch’u.

8. treasury: Moreover, carriers sing on the road; travellers rest under the trees; they shout in the distance and answer from behind; old people hobble along holding children by the hand, walking to and fro all the day long without a break—all these are scenes of the leisurely inhabitants of Chu.

9. dharmaraja: We come across carriers on the road, singing, or travellers resting beneath the trees, those in front calling out and those behind responding, the bent-backed old folks and babes in arms, coming and going without end, the people of Chu a-journeying.

10. wiki: Those carrying burdens sing along dirt paths, those walking rest under trees. Those in the front call out, and those at the back respond. Hunched over old folks and those leading children by the hand, coming without stopping, these are the outings of the people of Chu.

11. 徐英才: Therefore, now on this path, which is frequented by all kinds of sightseers from the town, you can see people carrying travel packs and singing; hikers resting under the trees; fellow travelers ahead and those behind calling out to each other; the aged, the infirm, and even the toddlers in arms.

理解这句时,人们可能会提出诸多疑问,比如:“负者”悠闲地边走边唱,而“行者”反累得在树下歇息,似不合常理;“前者呼,后者应”是不是排除了“后呼前应”的情形?

这可能缘于字词的平仄。看看“途”“树”“呼”“应”等字的平仄,它们形成了诵读节奏,所以,不宜颠倒。下文里的“泉香而酒洌”没有表达为“泉洌而酒香”应当也是同样的原因。

另外,说到修辞“互文”,《木兰辞》里有一例:“东市买骏马,西市买鞍鞯,南市买辔头,北市买长鞭”,其义是说“去了许多集市,购齐了出征所需物品”,并非在某一个特定集市上买某一特定的东西。同样地,“负者歌于途”这一句应当是说,山道上,游人往来,络绎不绝:有的背着东西,有的空手徒步,有的边走边唱,有的树下歇息,有喊的,有应的,有弓着腰爬山的,有伸手拉人一把的。理解了互文,就能避免执著于字面,而疑问也就消解了。

这一长句描绘出一幅“滁人游”的画图:有的歌,有的歇;有的呼,有的应;有的伛偻,有的提携。因此,我认为这里的“伛偻提携”不是指代老人与小孩的名词,而是描述游人姿态的动词。《汉语大词典》里解“伛偻”,其中一义为“俯身”,例子正是《醉翁亭记》的“伛偻提携”这一句。“伛偻”指弯腰,用本bend,old people就不妥了,而用hunchbacked old folks(驼背老人)就更不妥了。“伛偻提携”里看不出Infirm)与“infants in arms(怀抱婴儿)”来。“提携”译作the adults leading their children by the hand,其实未必是成年人与孩子,更不必是成年人自己的孩子。

       “行者”应是与“负者”相对的,指没有背东西的人,译作“徒步者”如 rambler”、“wayfarer 、“hiker”可以,而译作“sojourner”,就侧重“居”而不是“行”,近乎“孙行者”的“行者”了。译作“traveler”,似乎是说“负者”不在“游人”之列,而按原文意思,负者行者都是“滁人游也”。

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