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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(177)  

2018-01-13 10:17:49|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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I was also serenaded by a hooting owl. Near at hand you could fancy it the most melancholy sound in Nature, as if she meant by this to stereotype and make permanent in her choir the dying moans of a human being, -- some poor weak relic of mortality who has left hope behind, and howls like an animal, yet with human sobs, on entering the dark valley, made more awful by a certain gurgling melodiousness, - I find myself beginning with the letters gl when I try to imitate it, -- expressive of a mind which has reached the gelatinous, mildewy stage in the mortification of all healthy and courageous thought. It reminded me of ghouls and idiots and insane howlings. But now one answers from far woods in a strain made really melodious by distance, -- Hoo hoo hoo, hoorer hoo: and indeed for the most part it suggested only pleasing associations, whether heard by day or night, summer or winter.

I rejoice that there are owls. Let them do the idiotic and maniacal hooting for men. It is a sound admirably suited to swamps and twilight woods which no day illustrates, suggesting a vast and undeveloped nature which men have not recognized. They represent the stark twilight and unsatisfied thoughts which all have. All day the sun has shone on the surface of some savage swamp, where the single spruce stands hung with usnea lichens, and small hawks circulate above, and the chickadee lisps amid the evergreens, and the partridge and rabbit skulk beneath; but now a more dismal arid fitting day dawns, and a different race of creatures awakes to express the meaning of Nature there.

(徐迟译)还有一只叫个不停的猫头鹰也向我唱起小夜曲来,在近处听,你可能觉得,这是大自然中最最悲惨的声音,好像它要用这种声音来凝聚人类临终的呻吟,永远将它保留在它的歌曲之中一样,——那呻吟是人类的可怜的脆弱的残息,他把希望留在后面在进入冥府的人口处时,像动物一样嗥叫,却还含着人的啜泣声,由于某种很美的格尔格尔的声音,它听来尤其可怕——我发现我要模拟那声音时,我自己已经开始念出格尔这两个字了,——它充分表现出一个冷凝中的腐蚀的心灵状态,一切健康和勇敢的思想全都给破坏了。这使我想起了掘墓的恶鬼,白痴和狂人的嚎叫。可是现在有了一个应声,从远处的树木中传来,因为远,倒真正优美,霍————霍,霍瑞霍;这中间大部分所暗示的真是只有愉快的联想,不管你听到时是在白天或黑夜,在夏季或冬季。

  我觉得有猫头鹰是可喜的。让它们为人类作白痴似的狂人嚎叫。这种声音最适宜于白昼都照耀不到的沼泽与阴沉沉的森林,使人想起人类还没有发现的一个广大而未开化的天性。它可以代表绝对愚妄的晦暗与人人都有的不得满足的思想。整天,太阳曾照在一些荒野的沼泽表面,孤零零的针枞上长着地衣,小小的鹰在上空盘旋,而黑头山雀在常春藤中蹑嚅而言,松鸡、兔子则在下面躲藏着;可是现在一个更阴郁、更合适的白昼来临了,就有另外一批生物风云际会地醒来,表示了那里的大自然的意义。

1hooting owl译作“叫个不停的猫头鹰”“ 哀鸣不已的猫头鹰”,hooting是现在分词修饰“猫头鹰”。我疑心这里可能是猫头鹰的一个种属,即hoot owl森鸮。若真是这样,hooting就不必特别强调出了,因为已经含在“森鸮”这个名字里了,尽管下文里有Let them do the idiotic and maniacal hooting for men句把hooting从名字里拆出来。

2as if she meant…to stereotype… the dying moans of a human being好像森鸮想把人类临终的哀号都用她的鸣叫模式化固定下来,让人一听就联想到人的死前呜咽声。“凝聚”侧重移了;“吸尽”更远了。

3some poor weak relic of mortality who has left hope behind, and howls like an animal, yet with human sobs, on entering the dark valley, made more awful by a certain gurgling melodiousness这里的“some poor weak relic of mortality”指什么?上文里曾说,猫头鹰的叫声是自杀情侣的互相安慰;这里说森号叫声是“some poor weak relic of mortality”的嚎叫。

mortality是指濒临死亡的人;relic是遗体(濒死者的肉身?);weak是虚弱的(韩少功《马桥词典》里的“火焰低”)。这样的人,他们一到阴间/阴森山谷(on entering the dark valley)就抛却了希望(leave hope behind,即abandon hope)像动物一样嚎叫,但是还带有人类抽泣的节奏——这种悦耳的gl-音(像人高兴时发出的咯咯声)使得森鸮的叫声更加阴森可怖。

4expressive of a mind which has reached the gelatinous, mildewy stage in the mortification of all healthy and courageous thought. 表达出一种思想状态,人的所有健康勇敢的思想都在禁锢中到了凝胶、发霉的程度。

5suggesting a vast and undeveloped nature which men have not recognized. 这里的nature我倾向于“自然”,森林里有大片的未被开发的世界,这一点人类还没认识到。

6the single spruce stands hung with usnea lichens. 这里的single不能译作“孤零零”。

Walter Harding详注版里说: 

In his own copy of W, T corrected this from “single spruce.” Double spruce is an old name for the black spruce, the common spruce of the New England swamps, found in the neighborhood of Concord. The single or white spruce is more northerly in its range. Adding irony to T’s confusion of the species is the statement in his Journal (VI, 22) for December 22, 1853, before W was published. “It is remarkable how few inhabitants of Concord can tell a spruce from a fir, and probably not two a white from a black spruce, unless they are together.”

(戴欢译)另有一只哀鸣不已的猫头鹰也哼出了小夜曲。

接近鸣叫处,你大概会悚然而立,感到这是天地间凄凉得无以复加的天籁,似乎它已吸尽了世人临近死亡所发出的叹息的精魂,永久将这精魂贯穿在它的哀歌吟唱之中——那叹息是诗人游移于鼻头嘴角的最后一丝气息,他把希望抛在身后,踏入地狱之门时,发出一声野兽般的悲号,但却蕴含着人类的抽泣。这沉抑的“哥”、“哥”的旋律更增添了阴森之气——我发觉当我模仿那音调,我发出了“哥儿”两个字来——它显现出阴沉之中一颗满是空洞的心灵,一切豪气和坚毅在这里无影无踪。让我想起了夜幕下的食尸鬼、白眼的傻子和定睛而视的狂人,他们所发出的哀嚎。但马上我听到远处林中传来的回声,大概距离的原因,声音显得异常甜润——嘿,嘿,嘿,嘿累,这里面人们感受的只是欢快愉悦的韵味,无论是晴天或是雨夜,不管是盛夏还是严冬。

我认为猫头鹰的出现可喜可贺,它们为世人发出了沉迷于疯狂的奇人似的长啸,这声音最好的滋生地是白昼无光的沼泽地带和幽冥昏暗的莽莽森林。让世人明白内心还有一个广阔无垠、从未深入的本能世界。它象征着混沌迷蒙的原始和狂野不羁的原欲。所有的白天,日光照耀在这些荒蛮沼泽的边缘和上空,孤零零地站着一棵云杉,树皮上长满了苔藓,幼鹰在其上翱翔,黑山雀在披挂的常春藤中低低而鸣。松鸡、野兔躲藏在树根丛中。一个更加阴郁、契合的白天降临了,自然界中另一类生命适时而起了。

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