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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(221)  

2018-07-10 06:18:02|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Ancient poetry and mythology suggest, at least, that husbandry was once a sacred art; but it is pursued with irreverent haste and heedlessness by us, our object being to have large farms and large crops merely. We have no festival, nor procession, nor ceremony, not excepting our cattle-shows and so-called Thanksgivings, by which the farmer expresses a sense of the sacredness of his calling, or is reminded of its sacred origin. It is the premium and the feast which tempt him. He sacrifices not to Ceres and the Terrestrial Jove, but to the infernal Plutus rather. By avarice and selfishness, and a grovelling habit, from which none of us is free, of regarding the soil as property, or the means of acquiring property chiefly, the landscape is deformed, husbandry is degraded with us, and the farmer leads the meanest of lives. He knows Nature but as a robber. Cato says that the profits of agriculture are particularly pious or just (maximeque pius quaestus), and according to Varro the old Romans "called the same earth Mother and Ceres, and thought that they who cultivated it led a pious and useful life, and that they alone were left of the race of King Saturn."

(徐迟译)古代的诗歌和神话至少提示过,农事曾经是一种神圣的艺术,但我们匆促而杂乱,我们的目标只是大田园和大丰收。我们没有节庆的日子,没有仪式,没有行列了,连耕牛大会及感恩节也不例外,农民本来是用这种形式来表示他这职业的神圣意味的,或者是用来追溯农事的神圣起源的。现在是报酬和一顿大嚼在吸引他们了。现在他献牺牲不献给色列斯,不献给约夫了,他献给普鲁都斯这恶神了。由于我们没有一个人能摆脱掉的贪婪、自私和一个卑辱的习惯,把土地看作财产,或者是获得财产的主要手段,风景给破坏了,农事跟我们一样变得低下,农民过着最屈辱的生活。他了解的大自然,如同一个强盗所了解的那样。卡托说过农业的利益是特别虔敬而且正直的(maximeque pius quaestus),照伐洛说,古罗马的人把地母和色列斯唤为同名,他们认为从事耕作的人过的是一个虔敬而有用的生活,只有他们才是农神的遗民

1but it is pursued with irreverent haste and heedlessness by us, our object being to have large farms and large crops merely.但是,我们对农事的追求匆忙又心不在焉,缺乏虔诚,因为我们的目标是拥有大农场大收成,

2not excepting our cattle-shows and so-called Thanksgivings徐译“连耕牛大会及感恩节也不例外”正确,译作“除了牛市和所谓感恩节以外”意思译反了。译作“而且连耕牛大会和感恩节也没有”,像是说没有这俩节日,其实是有节是却没有庆祝仪式。

his calling是“农民的职业”,不是“他的回想/追忆”。

3By avarice and selfishness, and a grovelling habit, from which none of us is free, of regarding the soil as property, or the means of acquiring property chiefly, the landscape is deformed, husbandry is degraded with us, and the farmer leads the meanest of lives. 谁都摆脱不了的是一种习惯,并不包括贪婪和自私,因为说到and a grovelling habit 时,已经有一逗号与前面“贪婪和自私”分开,何况将紧跟“习惯”之后插入语from which none of us is free,将a grovelling habit of regarding the soil as property分成两部分。——这都说明which只是“习惯”而不包括“贪婪和自私”。

4He knows Nature but as a robber. 他了解大自然,却是掠夺者的了解。

5Ken Kifer评说:梭罗进一步批评我们的文化,他指出我们不再像罗马希腊人那样认为农耕是神圣的了。我们不再颂扬大自然(农神刻瑞斯),相反,我们的目光集中在金钱(财神普路托斯)上。好像土地不属于上帝或大自然,而是我们自己的财产,因此我们毁坏大自然而不为子孙着想。很多农民不是尽力理解帮助大自然母亲,而是从她那里盗窃。就是说,他们不增进土地的肥沃,而是听任土壤腐蚀,地力耗尽,他们毁坏森林以增加眼下的收益。(Thoreau further criticizes our culture by pointing out that we no longer have the notion that farming is sacred, as did the Romans and Greeks. Rather than celebrating Nature (Ceres), we focus on money (Plutus) instead. We treat the land as if it is our own property, rather than belonging to God and Nature, and thus we don't mind destroying it for future generations. Many farmers, rather than trying to understand and aid Mother Nature, steal from her instead. That is, they deplete the soil and allow it to erode rather than improving its fertility, and they destroy their forests to increase their immediate profits.

(戴欢译)古代的诗歌和神话至少给人们以启示:农事曾是一种崇高的艺术,可我们却在匆忙中随意乱来,我们所追求的目的仅是大农场和大丰收。我们不但没有仪式,没有庆贺的队伍和节庆日,而且连耕牛大会和感恩节也没有。农民们原本是用此种形式来表示他们这一职业的神圣意义,或是让人们追忆起农业的神圣由来。此刻吸引人们的是一笔薪金和一顿酒宴。如今,他们供奉的不再是谷神色列斯和主神朱庇特,而是财神普鲁托斯。由于我们全都具有贪婪、自私和卑贱的恶习,并把土地视为财产或是谋取财产的主要手段,风景被破坏了,于是农事和我们一样变得低贱,农民们则过着最屈辱的生活。他所认识的大自然,就像一个强盗所认识的那样。卡托认为农业的利益是异常虔诚而正当的,按罗马人代洛的话说,古罗马人“将天地之母与色列斯作为一样的称呼”,他们认为从事耕耘的人过的是一种虔敬而有益的生活,所以惟有他们才是农神的后裔。

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