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可怜的梭罗——读《瓦尔登湖》翻译(220)  

2018-07-09 06:04:39|  分类: 《瓦尔登湖》 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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This further experience also I gained: I said to myself, I will not plant beans and corn with so much industry another summer, but such seeds, if the seed is not lost, as sincerity, truth, simplicity, faith, innocence, and the like, and see if they will not grow in this soil, even with less toil and manurance, and sustain me, for surely it has not been exhausted for these crops. Alas! I said this to myself; but now another summer is gone, and another, and another, and I am obliged to say to you, Reader, that the seeds which I planted, if indeed they were the seeds of those virtues, were wormeaten or had lost their vitality, and so did not come up. Commonly men will only be brave as their fathers were brave, or timid. This generation is very sure to plant corn and beans each new year precisely as the Indians did centuries ago and taught the first settlers to do, as if there were a fate in it. I saw an old man the other day, to my astonishment, making the holes with a hoe for the seventieth time at least, and not for himself to lie down in! But why should not the New Englander try new adventures, and not lay so much stress on his grain, his potato and grass crop, and his orchards, -- raise other crops than these? Why concern ourselves so much about our beans for seed, and not be concerned at all about a new generation of men? We should really be fed and cheered if when we met a man we were sure to see that some of the qualities which I have named, which we all prize more than those other productions, but which are for the most part broadcast and floating in the air, had taken root and grown in him. Here comes such a subtile and ineffable quality, for instance, as truth or justice, though the slightest amount or new variety of it, along the road. Our ambassadors should be instructed to send home such seeds as these, and Congress help to distribute them over all the land. We should never stand upon ceremony with sincerity. We should never cheat and insult and banish one another by our meanness, if there were present the kernel of worth and friendliness. We should not meet thus in haste. Most men I do not meet at all, for they seem not to have time; they are busy about their beans. We would not deal with a man thus plodding ever, leaning on a hoe or a spade as a staff between his work, not as a mushroom, but partially risen out of the earth, something more than erect, like swallows alighted and walking on the ground: --

    "And as he spake, his wings would now and then

    Spread, as he meant to fly, then close again,"

so that we should suspect that we might be conversing with an angel. Bread may not always nourish us; but it always does us good, it even takes stiffness out of our joints, and makes us supple and buoyant, when we knew not what ailed us, to recognize any generosity in man or Nature, to share any unmixed and heroic joy.

徐迟译我还获得了下面的更丰富的经验:我对我自己说,下一个夏天,我不要花那么大的劳力来种豆子和玉米了,我将种这样一些种子,像诚实,真理,纯朴,信心,天真等等,如果这些种子并没有失落,看看它们能否在这片土地上生长,能否以较少劳力和肥料,来维持我的生活,因为,地力一定还没有消耗到不能种这些东西。唉!我对自己说过这些话,可是,现在又一个夏季过去了,而且又一个又一个地都过去了,我不得不告诉你们,读者啊,我所种下的种子,如果是这些美德的种子,那就都给虫子吃掉了,或者是已失去了生机,都没有长出苗来呢。人通常只能像他们的祖先一样勇敢或怯懦。这一代人每一年所种的玉米和豆子,必然和印第安人在几个世纪之前所种的一样,那是他们教给最初来到的移民的,仿佛命该如此,难以改变了。有一天,我还看见过一个老头子,使我惊讶不已,他用一把锄头挖洞至少挖了第七十次了,但他自己却不预备躺在里面。为什么新英格兰人不应该尝试尝试新的事业,不要过分地看重他的玉米,他的土豆、草料和他的果园,——而种植一些别的东西呢?为什么偏要这样关心豆子的种子而一点也不关心新一代的人类呢?我前面说起的那些品德,我们认为它们高于其他产物,如果我们遇到一个人,看到他具有我说到过的那些品德,那些飘荡四散于空中的品德已经在他那里扎根而且生长了,那时我们真应该感到满意和高兴。这里来了这样一种难以捉摸而且不可言喻的品德,例如真理或公正,虽然量极少,虽然还是一个新的品种,然而它是沿着大路而来了。我们的大使应该接到一些训令,去选择好品种,寄回国内来,然后我们的国会把它们分发到全国各地去种植。我们不应该虚伪地对待真诚。如果高贵与友情的精华已为我们所有,我们绝对不应该再让我们的卑鄙来互相欺骗、互相侮辱、排斥彼此。我们也不应该匆忙相见。大多数人我根本没有见过,似乎他们没有时间,他们忙着他们的豆子呢。我们不要跟这样的忙人往来,他在工作间歇时倚身在锄头上或铲子上,仿佛倚身在手杖上,不像一只香菌却只有一部分是从土地中升起来的,不完全是笔直的,像燕子停落下来,在大地上行走着,——

  说话时,他的翅膀不时张开,

  像要飞动,却又垂下了,——”

害得我们以为我们许是在跟一个天使谈话。面包可能并不总是滋养我们;却总于我们有益,能把我们关节中的僵硬消除,使我们柔软而活泼,甚至在我们不知道患了什么病症的时候,使我们从大自然及人间都找到仁慈,享受到任何精纯而强烈的欢乐。

1) This generation is very sure to plant corn and beans each new year precisely as the Indians did centuries ago and taught the first settlers to do, as if there were a fate in it. 几百年前,印第安人就种玉米和豆子,现在人们肯定每一年还在种玉米和豆子,好像命运注定了无法更改一样。上文说“我将不再种豆子的玉米了(I will not plant beans and cornbut such seeds…)”,下文说“难道就不能种些别的?(why should not …raise other crops than these?)”为何我们如此关注农作物的下一代,而不关注人类的下一代?为何关注物质而不关注精神?

下文里的“核”“仁”( the kernel of worth and friendliness)也是种子。

2) Here comes such a subtile and ineffable quality, for instance, as truth or justice, though the slightest amount or new variety of it, along the road.真理正义这些美德如此微妙而难于言表,它们顺大道来了。我们重视它们应该胜过豆子。

3) Our ambassadors should be instructed to send home such seeds as these, and Congress help to distribute them over all the land. 应该指示我们的大使让他们把这样的种子寄回国,指示国会帮着在全国分发。Jeffery Cramer注:From a practice begun by Benjamin Franklin in England and Thomas Jefferson in France, both of whom collected rare seeds for distribution in America, and endorsed by John Quincy Adams (1767–1848), whose administration instructed all consuls to forward rare plants and seeds to Washington for distribution.

4) We should not meet thus in haste.译作“我们也不应该匆忙相见。”好像相见前的准备不足似的。这里当是指相见时间太短,仓促结束。

5) not as a mushroom, but partially risen out of the earth, something more than erect, like swallows alighted and walking on the ground:不是蘑菇,却像从地里长出来的,直挺挺地立着,像燕子落下,在地上行走。

mushroom一词译作“香菌”,“香”字平添焦点,误导读者注意力。

6)Ken Kifer注有助于把握这一段意思:Thoreau decided not to grow as many beans again but to use the time for self-improvement. He says that his efforts were lost, which is a sign of his modesty. His sister Sophia thought he was the best person she had ever known.

He criticizes our society for forever taking great pains with our fields and not as great of pains with our virtues. He finds it ironic that the 70-year-old man is more concerned with planting seeds than with his soul. He says that we are so busy working that we fail to find time to communicate with one another. Why not try to create a new generation of people who will not be focused on the ground but on the heavens? Why not spread our time diseminating seeds that will generate change within people? We should treat our fellow men as if they were angels rather than a product of the earth.

(戴欢译)我还取得了一些更好的经验。我曾对自己说,在下一个夏季里,我不需用那么多的苦力来播种豆子和玉米,我要匀出精力,用来播种——如真诚、真理、朴实、信心、纯真等等,假如这样的种子还没有丧失的话,那么,我倒要看看它们能否在这块田地里生长,能否用极少的劳力和肥料来维持我的生活,这是因为,地力肯定没到消耗得不能播种的地步。在此,我必须告诉你们,可爱的读者呵,我所种下的这些种子,假如它们是些美德的种子,很遗憾,他们全给害虫吃光了,或是已丧失生机,没有长出来。

一般人们只会像他们的祖先那样勇敢或懦弱。这一代人,每年所种的玉米和豆子,必然与几个世纪以前的印第安人所种的一样,那是因为最初来到这儿的移民都是他们教会的,好像命中注定,已难改变。一天我看见一老汉,他使我惊诧莫名,他用一把锄头挖洞,至少挖了70个,但他却不预备自己躺在里面。为何新英格兰人不去尝试一下新事业?为何不去种植一些别的作物呢?为何偏偏如此关心豆种而丝毫不关心新一代人类呢?

我前面提到的那些品德,我们确信它们比其他产物要高尚。要是我们偶然见到一个人,并看出他具有那些品德,那些在天空飘散的品德正在他体内扎根生长了,那么,我们真应该为此感到快慰和喜悦。这里来了一种不可捉摸而又难以言喻的品德,比如真理或公正,尽管数量稀少,尽管还是一个新品种,但它却是沿着大路而来的。我们的大使应当接到指令,将一些优良品种寄回国内,而国会则将它们分配到全国各地去播种。我们在对待真诚时不应表现出虚伪做作。假如高尚和友情的精髓为我们所拥有,我们永不该用卑下的情感来相互欺骗、相互侮辱和相互排斥。因而我们不应匆匆见面。因为大多数人我根本就不认识,他们几乎就没有时间,他们在忙着耕种他们的豆子呢。我们也不应和这样的忙人来往,歇息时他倚身在铲子或锄头上,就像杵着手杖,虽然不是蘑菇,但也有一部分好似破土而出,那情形倒像一只在走路的燕子。

“言语时,它的翅膀张合,

好似展翅欲飞,却又垂落收拢——”

它哄骗我们自以为是在和一位天使攀谈。粮食也许不能永远滋养我们,但总能对我们的身体有好处,甚至是在我们自己还不知患了何种疾病之时,便将我们关节中的僵硬消除,令我们轻松、兴奋,使我们在大自然和社会中寻觅到慈爱,并享受到所有纯净而激烈的快乐。

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